This guide was created as an overview of the GNU/Linux Operating System, geared toward new users as an exploration tour and getting started guide, with exercises at the end of each chapter.
For more advanced trainees it can be a desktop reference, and a collection of the base knowledge needed to proceed with system and network administration. This book contains many real life examples derived from the author’s experience as a Linux system and network administrator, trainer and consultant. They hope these examples will help you to get a better understanding of the Linux system and that you feel encouraged to try out things on your own.
03 December 2016 – Donald Stewart has announced the release of Mageia 5.1, an updated build of the distribution current stable branch. This unscheduled version was put together due to delays delivering the upcoming Mageia 6 which is currently in development. From the release announcement: “We are very pleased to announce the release of Mageia 5.1. This release is a respin of the Mageia 5 installation and live ISO images, based on the Mageia 5 repository and incorporating all updates to allow for an up-to-date installation without the need to install almost a year-and-a-half worth of updates. It is therefore recommended for new installations and upgrades from Mageia 4. If you are currently running Mageia 5 then there is no need to install Mageia 5.1 as it is the same as your system, provided that updates have been installed. Mageia 5.1 ships with many updated packages, including LibreOffice 4.4.7, Linux kernel 4.4.32, KDE4 4.14.5, GNOME 3.14.3 and countless other updates.“
GNU Guix is a functional package manager for the GNU system. In addition to standard package management features, Guix supports transactional upgrades and roll-backs, unprivileged package management, per-user profiles, and garbage collection. Guix uses low-level mechanisms from the Nix package manager, except that packages are defined as native Guile modules, using extensions to the Scheme language. GuixSD offers a declarative approach to operating system configuration management, and is highly customizable and hackable.
As of version 0.10.0, the Guix System Distribution can be installed on an i686 or x86_64 machine. It uses the Linux-Libre kernel and the GNU Shepherd init system. Alternately, its package manager, GNU Guix, can be installed as an additional package manager on top of an installed Linux-based system.
It is also possible to use Guix on top of an already installed GNU/Linux system, including on mips64el and armv7.
Ludovic Courtès has announced the release of a new version. It offers reproducible builds for several key packages, plus the GNOME desktop environment and over 600 new packages in the project’s repositories. “It’s been almost five months since the previous release, and many things happened! The highlights include: Our grafting mechanism for security updates has been fixed to be generally applicable. Read this post for more information on the challenges behind this. Substitutes are now fetched by default over HTTPS and from a faster mirror. A number of packages have been made bit-for-bit reproducible, including glibc, Perl, Emacs packages, and Python packages. This work was simplified by Guix challenge and by the new –check and –rounds build options, and also by the insight gathered from other reproducible builds efforts. GNOME is now available, via the gnome-desktop-service procedure. 639 new packages, about as many package updates, greatly simplified by the addition of new importers and auto-updaters. A wealth of bug fixes, documentation improvements, Emacs niceties, and more!“
Guix is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
Rémi Verschelde has announced the release of Mageia 5. Mageia is a community distribution which started as a fork of the Mandriva project, but which now operates as an independent distribution. The new release features UEFI support (though not Secure Boot), version 3.19 of the Linux kernel, KDE 4.14 and GNOME 3.14. Cinnamon, MATE, Plasma, LXQt and Xfce desktop are also available. The installation on UEFI machines is now supported out of the box, grub2 (optional and not the default) should now work better out of the box, detect other installed operating systems and add them to grub2 boot menu, Lots of bug fixes in the installer and the control center, including bugs dating back from before the Mageia fork that the work on UEFI support made prominent. Btrfs is now supported as a primary filesystem, though ext4 remains the default – when selecting it for /boot (or / without a separate /boot partition) grub2 will be automatically chosen and configured. We now use the standard Adwaita theme instead of Oxygen-gtk, as the latter is broken with gtk+-3.14.
We now use the new standard for weak dependencies.
Our packages’ spec files use the new standard for dependencies exclusion (making them more similar to Fedora/Suse/etc. packages).
Installation media, live discs and a network install ISO are offered as download options. More information on the new version of Mageia can be found in the project’s release announcement
Philip Müller has announced the launch of Manjaro Linux 0.8.13. Manjaro is an Arch-based distribution with friendly text and graphical system installers and the project offers many desktop utilities out of the box. “After four months of development we are happy to present to you Manjaro 0.8.13. This time we ship Xfce 4.12 tweaked and patched to have the best Xfce experience possible, Plasma 5.3.1, KDE Frameworks 5.10.0 and latest KDE Apps 15.04.1!” The announcement goes on to list specific upgrades to the project’s Xfce and KDE editions. New improvements can also be found in the distribution’s system installer: “We worked also hard to improve our graphical installer Thus and our system tools to make the installation and usage of Manjaro as easy and smooth as possible. With this install media we now support Manjaro to be installed on MMC/SD-Cards as well. This will allow some of you to install our distribution to smaller devices without hard drives. Also this install media fixes the issue we had with RAID0 and ext4.” Further information on this release can be found in the project’s release announcement.
The NET edition of Manjaro provides a base installation without a pre-installed display manager, desktop environment, or any desktop software applications. It allows you to build your own version of Manjaro from the ground up.
The GNU H is what is commonly meant when people are talking about GNU/Hurd systems.
This system has mostly been designed and implemented It works and is usable. For example, these web pages have been rendered on a GNU/Hurd system.
You can try it out for yourself: for getting access, installing Debian GNU/Hurd will probably be the easiest and most feature-complete solution. If you don’t have spare hardware to use for doing so, you can also get a shell account on a public Hurd machine. Depending on the things you’re going to work on (and on your internet connection), this may be an easy way of getting used to Hurd systems. Installing in a virtual machine is another possibility, see the page about running a Hurd system for the full story. In particular, running a Debian GNU/Hurd QEMU image may be a viable alternative.
it is mostly based on the same sources. It is not an official Debian release, but it is an official Debian GNU/Hurd port release.